Errata and Clarifications

Encyclopedia of Marine Science

First Printing

Nichols and Williams

Facts On File

© 2008


December 31, 2008


NOTE: Some or all of these corrections and clarifications may have been implemented in your book, depending on which printing you have.






Should Read


Gerhard Neumann

Gerhard Neumann, Ph.D


Franklin E. Kniskern, Ph.D

Franklin E. Kniskern


1 N = 105 dyn = .10197 kg Wt. = .22481 lb Wt

1 N = 105 dyn = .10197 kg-force = .22481 lb-force


30-65 inches (76.2-165 cm)

approximately 5 inches (120 mm)


66 º32º N (often taken as 66.5 ’N)

66 º 32’ N (often taken as 66.5ºN)


Elmer A. Sperry

Elmer A. Sperry (1860-1930)

155, 2nd column

Geospatial and Intelligence


159, 1st column, 9th line




Bocaccio, Haddock, Halibut

bocaccio, haddock, halibut

212, 5th line

National Ocean

National Oceanic


Ocean Engineering Societ

Ocean Engineering Society

317, 1st column, 27th line



380, 2nd column, 1st para



468,  2nd column

k = 1/λ

k = 2π/λ

484, 1st column, last line



501, 1st column, last para. 

9° N and 11° N

9° S and 11° S.

504,  1st column, 3rd line

33.8˚F (1˚C)







xii, Density of seawater at 0°C = 1,025 kg/m3 ….

Density of seawater at 10°C and salinity of 35 psu = 1,026.97 kg/m3 = 64.11 pounds/ft3

xiii, 1 Kg Wt = 2.20462 lb Wt

Wt is not defined.  Wt = mass multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity g to yield force, by Newton’s 2nd Law.   Therefore, remove “Wt”

xiv,  PSU

Used throughout the book as “psu

7, the figure depicting the downward looking acoustic Doppler current profiler.

There is no need to orient the reader to the beams orientation.  Given the boats orientation, starboard and port are also mislabeled. The lines labeled “Starboard” and “Port” and “Fore” and “Aft” should be deleted.  The vertical solid line and the dashed circle should be deleted. 

24, in the first sentence following, “such as” delete “the” and modify the string starting with “amphibious” and ending with  “other.”

amphibious vehicles such as the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle, high-speed

104, Figure caption, “The pie chart shows the approximately constant composition of oceanic water.”

The caption should read, “The pie chart shows the approximately constant composition of ions in oceanic water.”

107, Today, the largest container-shipping carrier in the world is M/V Maersk-Sealand.

Today, one of the largest container-shipping carriers in the world is the Maersk Line.

108,  Figure caption: “The map shows the continental margins of North America

The map shows the approximate distribution of depths on the continental margins of North America.

122 Figure caption: “Map of the world’s oceans showing the approximate locations of the average positions of warm and cold currents.

Change to:  “Map of the world’s oceans showing the approximate locations of the average positions of warm and cold surface currents.”

170, The second sentence is incomplete.  Plus, at the end of the entry, there should be a call out for the figure on page 182. 

The second sentence should read, “For instance, if the wind is blowing from the land out over the water, then the fetch 6 miles (10 km) seaward from the land is 6 miles.”  A concluding sentence should be added to read, “An illustration of fetch is provided on page 182.”

186,  Figure caption: “The geoid is an imaginary surface …”

Add to the caption: “The contour lines show deviations from the surface of the geoid in meters.”

189, Figure caption: “..the pressure gradient force balances the Coriolis effect…”

“…the pressure gradient force balances the Coriolis force…”

217, under diet of northern bluefin tuna, change “or on squids…” to

“…or squid…”

222, Figure “A hurricane is formed when winds exceed 64 knots (119 km/hr)…”

“A hurricane is formed when winds exceed 64 knots (74 mph, or 119 km/hr)…”

232, Figure “The inset shows the distribution…”

“The inset on the right shows the distribution of crust…”   “The inset on the left shows the sea floor bending downward at a subduction zone, and the resulting deep-sea trench on the ocean floor.”

271, Figure: “The changing spectrum of light…”

Add information to the caption: “ the changing spectrum of light with depth as seen by a diver.  As depth increases, the intensity of the light decreases, shown by the decreasing area with depth under the bell-shaped curves.   The longer wavelengths of light, red, orange, yellow—are attenuated as shown by the shaded bars corresponding to wavelength ranges, with the greatest attenuation at the longest wavelength (red), then orange, yellow, blue-green going from right to left, respectively.  At a depth of 330 feet (100 m), only the blue to violet remains, and the scene appears deep blue.”

282, Table title missing

Add, “Selected list of Marginal Seas

285, Table title missing.

Add, “Selected List of Cultivated Marine Animals and Plants

371, which drags along the bottom and

which drags along the bottom, contains lead weights.

379  Figure caption.  “…at about 10 degrees N latitude;…

Add “…at about 10 degrees N latitude, and, seasonally, farther south in the Indian Ocean…”

426 ,  figure caption

Start caption with “Artist rendering of …”

455  Further Reading  Allaby, Michael.  Encyclopedia…”

Delete Allaby reference.  Replace with “Barrick, D.E. “The ocean waveheight nondirectional spectrum from inversion of the HF sea-echo Doppler spectrum  Remote Sensing of the Environment 6 (1977): 201-227.

476, Rode

Use a brace that indicates chain and line to depict rode.

501 Figure.  Indian South Equatorial Current is not shown.

Add Indian South Equatorial Current at about same relative position as Atlantic South Equatorial Current.

504 Figure Caption  A record tuna catch of the…”

Change to “Tuna catch by female angler during the early 1900s.”